Thermogenesis refers to the process of producing heat, which takes energy to do and, therefore, burns calories. Thermogenic fat burners take advantage of this natural bodily process. In theory, an enhanced metabolism can contribute to weight loss, which means thermogenic fat burners might help with fat burning for weight loss.
According to scientific research, thermogenic supplements help with fast weight loss by increasing metabolic rate, reducing hunger, burning calories, and increasing energy levels.
This guide reviews the top eight thermogenic fat burners on the market right now. Ingredients, advantages, dose, cost, reviews, and safety were all considered to provide an informed decision. So, keep reading to learn everything you need about the best thermogenic fat-burning supplements in 2023.
Best Thermogenic Fat Burner
- PhenQ – Editor’s Choice
- PhenGold – Best fat Burner For Stubborn Belly Fat
- Leanbean – Best Fat Burner For Women
- Instant Knockout – Best Fat Burner For Men
- PhenQ PM – Best Night Fat Burner
- Trimtone – Best Fat Burner For Suppressing Appetite
- PrimeShred – Best Fat Burner For Mental Focus & Energy
- Burn Lab Pro – Best Fat Burner For Boosting Training Intensity
Who Should Use Thermogenic Fat Burners?
You’ve most likely heard of thermogenic fat burner supplements. Fat burners, as the name implies, are nutritional supplements used to get lean. Some professional bodybuilders, for example, use them before a physical competition.
You may benefit from premium fat-burner supplements if you are a regular gym goer or fitness enthusiast. This is because these supplements might enhance fat-burning efficiency and make it easier to break through weight loss plateaus.
Unfortunately, there isn’t enough research to indicate that fat burners are effective. If you’re on certain medications, you should know that some supplements may cause adverse drug interactions.
Best Thermogenic Fat Burner Supplements To Use In 2023
- Made from 100% natural ingredients.
- 60-day money-back-guarantee.
- Naturally boosts metabolism.
- Contains discounts for subscriptions.
- Relatively expensive.
- Only available on the company’s official website.
- Not ideal for people with caffeine sensitivities.
PhenQ uses a blend of natural ingredients. These include ⍺-Lacys Reset, nopal, chromium, calcium carbonate, caffeine, Capsimax, InnoSlim, iodine, and vitamins.
- Caffeine: Each PhenQ pill contains 100 milligrams of caffeine, which may be a high amount for some people. Caffeine is a natural stimulant that helps with weight loss by reducing hunger cravings and boosting metabolism. Caffeine may also help to directly or indirectly reduce stress and elevate one’s mood, although this is still a matter of debate. Conversely, too much caffeine can exacerbate symptoms of mood disorders, such as anxiety.
- Nopal Cactus: Nopal is high in fiber and numerous vitamins and minerals like A, B, C, polyphenols, magnesium, potassium, iron, calcium, and various amino acids. As a high-fiber ingredient, nopal not only takes longer to digest but also provides volume, which leaves you feeling full for longer. The presence of nopal in PhenQ can help to improve digestive function and satiety while enhancing the fat-burning process.
- ⍺-Lacys Reset: ⍺-Lacys Reset is PhenQ’s trademark ingredient and perhaps the most powerful in the formula. It’s a blend that comprises magnesium, alpha-lipoic acid, and cysteine – all these work together to boost energy levels, metabolism, and fat-burning efforts.
- Made in the U.S.A.
- GMO-free, suitable for vegans.
- Improves energy, mood, and focus.
- 100-day money-back guarantee
- Very high caffeine content.
- Exclusively available on the company’s official website.
Manufacturers of PhenGold claim that it’s a multi-action formula that helps to eliminate excess fat faster without interfering with the body’s natural mechanism.
Some of the ingredients used for developing PhenGold include:
- Green Tea: PhenGold contains 500 mg of green tea, and for good reason. Green tea directly correlates with weight loss. It contains an antioxidant called epigallocatechin gallate, or EGCG, that has been reported to have belly fat reduction effects.
- Dimethylethanolamine, DMAE: Acetylcholine is a chemical that transmits messages from your brain to your body. DMAE is a nootropic that enhances PhenGold’s effectiveness by increasing the production of acetylcholine, which, in turn, leads to improved mood and brain function.
- Caffeine: A serving of PhenGold contains 250 mg of pure caffeine. According to the FDA, healthy adults can consume up to 400 mg without experiencing negative effects. Green Coffee Extract: Unlike normal coffee, green coffee beans are not roasted. This allows green coffee to retain several unique compounds. An example is chlorogenic acid, a compound with unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Additional ingredients in the formula include:
- Vitamins B3, B6, and B12.
- Rhodiola rosea.
- Cayenne pepper.
- L-tyrosine and L-theanine.
- Best for women.
- Fights physical and mental fatigue.
- 100% natural ingredients.
- Significantly reduces cravings and appetite.
- Requires you to take six capsules a day.
- Not suitable for pregnant and nursing women.
Leanbean is claimed to be one of the best fat burners available for women. The supplement contains all-natural ingredients that work together to normalize blood sugar levels, reduce food cravings, and increase metabolism to burn fat.
The well-thought-out and dynamic composition of Leanbean includes plant extracts, botanicals, antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals. Most of these are scientifically backed by research.
- Glucomannan: Leanbean contains 3,000 mg of glucomannan. The dietary fiber makes you feel fuller for longer and potentially boosts metabolism. The satiating effect helps you to control your hunger cravings and, to an extent, your caloric intake.
- Choline: Each dose of Leanbean capsules contains 27.5 mg of choline. Choline is a naturally occurring substance structurally similar to B vitamins. It helps to regulate fat metabolism. Unfortunately, the body doesn’t produce enough of this essential substance, necessitating a healthy diet and sometimes supplementation.
- Vitamins B6 and B12: According to the manufacturers, the B vitamins in Leanbean help to reduce fatigue and tiredness. These are essential vitamins that play a role in metabolism and energy production.
Other supporting ingredients include green coffee beans, turmeric, garcinia cambogia, zinc, chromium picolinate, potassium, and piperine.
- Vegetarian and vegan friendly.
- 24-hour fat-burning supplement.
- Burns excess fat while preserving muscles.
- Free worldwide shipping.
- All-natural ingredients.
- Caffeine content might be too intense.
Instant Knockout is a weight loss formula for diverse groups of people above the age of 18. It comprises 100% natural ingredients that boost metabolism and suppress appetite to maximize fat-burning potential.
According to the official website, Instant Knockout is formulated using nine key ingredients: caffeine, green tea extract, glucomannan, cayenne pepper extracts, black pepper extract, L-theanine, and Vitamins D3, B6, and B12.
Here is how some of these ingredients work:
- Glucomannan: Glucomannan is an extract of the konjac plant that helps to keep you full for longer due to its high dietary fiber content. Current research shows that glucomannan might benefit metabolic and weight-related issues affecting overweight individuals.
- Black pepper extract: Black pepper is an essential addition to the formula. It promotes beneficial metabolism during exercise.
- Cayenne pepper seeds: Cayenne pepper is one of the top ingredients almost all fat-burner manufacturers appreciate. This is because it contains capsaicin. Like green tea, capsaicin promotes thermogenesis. It increases the metabolic rate and enhances fat oxidation.
- Boosts metabolism and energy levels.
- Suppresses appetite and hunger cravings.
- Promotes a better night’s sleep.
- Includes all-natural ingredients.
- Slightly expensive.
If you’re a person who overeats during the night, PhenQ PM might be the ultimate fat burner that can help suppress your late-night cravings. The formula doesn’t contain caffeine, making it an obvious choice for a late-night thermogenic fat burner.
Each daily serving of the fat burner provides a total amino acid dosage of 2,750 mg, essential for supporting night-time fat burning and better sleep. These amino acids include L-theanine, L-arginine, L-tyrosine, L-lysine HCL, 5-HTP, and phenylalanine.
Other ingredients in the formula include
- Vitamins C, B1, B5, B6.
- Specifically tailored for women.
- Reduces food cravings
- Boost metabolism.
- Not suitable for vegans and vegetarians.
Trimtone contains 100% natural ingredients such as grains of paradise, green tea extract, and caffeine – all associated with weight reduction.
According to the official website, the complete list of ingredients in the formula includes:
- Green Coffee.
- Green Tea.
- Grains of Paradise.
According to the manufacturers, grains of paradise are an essential addition to the fat burner. They can fire up brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and increase whole-body energy expenditure in adults. By doing so, it boosts the metabolic rate and burns more calories to promote weight loss.
Glucomannan contains dietary fiber, which acts as a hunger suppressant, making you feel full for longer.
Other ingredients like caffeine, green tea extract, and coffee bean extracts increase the thermogenic effect of the fat burner. In addition, they help to control blood sugar levels necessary for ensuring that more stored fat is burned for energy.
- Boosts energy and enhances mood.
- Vegan friendly.
- Boosts metabolic rate.
- Clinically proven ingredients.
- Helps preserve and build lean muscle.
- Only available via the official website.
Primeshred is for anyone looking to get a toned and slimmer physique. The manufacturers guarantee favorable results in 50 days after consistently taking the fat burner alongside a healthy diet and a regular exercise routine.
Primeshred uses clinically tested and approved ingredients to get you maximum results quickly.
The list of ingredients includes:
- Green tea extract – 500 mg.
- Caffeine anhydrous – 225 mg.
- DMAE – 150 mg.
- Rhodiola rosea root – 250 mg.
- L-tyrosine – 300 mg.
- Green coffee – 100 mg.
- Vitamin B complex.
- Cayenne pepper – 200 mg.
- Bioperine – 5 mg.
- Vegetable capsule.
Primeshred seems quite effective in backing its claims. According to various online reviews, the fat burner stands out for boosting metabolism and supporting overall weight loss.
Burn Lab Pro
- 100% natural ingredients.
- Supports fat loss without losing muscle.
- Can only be purchased through the official website.
Burn Lab Pro is an ideal choice for anyone looking to lose weight while keeping their muscles intact. The manufacturers claim that the product is a unique formula with only five ingredients that can aid in burning fat, improving training intensity, and supporting muscle gain.
- HMB ß-Hydroxy ß-Methylbutyrate – HMB is often used in most fat-burning supplements because it keeps muscle mass intact even after substantial weight loss. Burn Lab Pro contains 1,500 mg of HMB. The manufacturers claim that this amount can help promote muscle gain and recovery.
- Forslean – Alongside a healthy diet and exercise, Forslean is an advanced form of Coleus forskohlii, which boosts fat metabolism, muscle growth, and fat-burning.
- Nutrigenesis®: GTF chromium – GTF chromium is a crucial mineral for body composition and fat loss. According to the manufacturers, this trace mineral is included in the formulation due to its ability to enhance insulin activity. With optimal insulin levels, you can control your cravings.
- The other ingredients are black pepper extract and Capsimax, which aid in fat loss through appetite suppression and thermogenesis.
How Do Thermogenic Fat Burners Help With Weight Loss?
When trying to reduce weight, nutritional experts advise eating fewer calories than you burn and exercising regularly for the best results. Of course, that’s easier said than done. Most people have little work-life balance, high levels of stress, and not enough energy to work out or cook. This is when thermogenic fat burners can come in handy.
Thermogenic fat-burning pills of high quality are produced with natural components that boost the body’s metabolic rate. Caffeine, green tea, and whey protein are examples of these.
If you want to reduce body weight, you’ll need to create a calorie deficit — whether you’re taking a supplement or not. Taking thermogenic fat-burner pills can boost your metabolism, reduce cravings, and give you more energy, helping you to exercise and burn more calories at rest. However, a well-rounded multivitamin and a cup of coffee or green tea can do the same thing.
Do You Really Need A Thermogenic Fat Burner?
Many of the ingredients found in fat burners include a blend of vitamins, minerals, and caffeine. This means that if you focus on building healthy eating habits and drink more green tea or coffee, you can lose weight without needing a fat burner. Plus, healthy habits can last a lifetime, while fat burners offer short-term results that can lead to yo-yo weight gain and stress.
So, while you can lose fat by incorporating the best fat-burning supplements into your fitness regimen, the supplement alone isn’t enough. You’ll still need to focus on eating fewer calories and exercise.
Finally, consider that you might not even need a fat burner. Building healthier habits — such as regularly practicing stress-relieving activities, moving your body in fun ways, and adding more nutrient-dense foods to your diet — might be enough.
Potential Side Effects & Precautions
You may have heard about thermogenic supplements’ fat-burning and weight-loss benefits. But have you ever heard about the fat burners’ side effects?
Little Scientific Research To Back Claims
Because thermogenic fat burners are dietary supplements, they have yet to be researched in close detail, so their effectiveness claims still need to be investigated. Scientific evidence supports the harmful effects of some ingredients in these supplements, especially when they are included in large quantities. Research also shows that fat-burning supplements don’t produce superior changes in fat mass relative to placebo groups.
Ultimately, a healthy lifestyle can produce the same, if not better, results.
Harmful Side Effects
High doses of ingredients such as caffeine, green tea, and yohimbine can cause harmful effects.
Heavy caffeine consumption can adversely affect blood pressure and heart rate. In addition, it can contribute to headaches, insomnia, irregular heartbeat, nausea, and restlessness. Similarly, adding too much green tea extract to the formula can adversely affect your liver.
Yohimbe bark extracts are used in many dietary supplements due to their potential health effects. Although Yohimbe is sometimes marketed for weight loss, there’s little evidence to prove the claims. On the contrary, this ingredient has been linked with several serious health risks, including seizures and heart attacks, necessitating clinical supervision before taking it.
The best option is to seek advice from a medical doctor or registered dietitian to guarantee the thermogenic supplements’ safety and efficiency. Always follow directions and adhere to recommended dosages to prevent adverse side effects.
How To Safely Use A Thermogenic Fat Burner
Using thermogenic fat burners can be a helpful approach to weight loss. However, it would help never to forget that these supplements are not magic pills that will immediately give you the shredded body you’ve always imagined.
To maximize the benefits of fat burners for weight loss, here are ten tricks to help you make the most of your burner:
Always Check The Label
Although it may seem obvious, not all body fat burner supplements are identical. So, when you buy one, reading and understanding the ingredients is essential. Always look for supplements made from natural ingredients that don’t contain excess amounts of caffeine and other stimulants to avoid side effects.
Make Sure To Keep Hydrated At All Times
As already mentioned, thermogenic fat burners work by raising the body’s temperature. As a result, you might sweat even more, which can lead to dehydration. Unfortunately, dehydration limits the effectiveness of thermogenic supplements.
Also, if your preferred supplement contains caffeine, its diuretic properties mean you will visit the bathroom more frequently than usual. That means you’ll need more water for hydration support. When you’re well-hydrated, you can do more work, which, in turn, leads to more calories burned and substantial fat loss.
Time Your Intake
Some fat burner supplements work well on an empty stomach, while others don’t. The best time to take thermogenic supplements is usually during the early mornings. The majority of natural fat burners have high amounts of caffeine, which can mess with your sleep. So, taking a thermogenic fat burner supplement when you wake up can help kick-start your metabolism.
Not only that, the supplement also helps to suppress your appetite so that you might feel more in control of your eating habits throughout the day.
Eat A Healthy Diet
When striving to lose weight, a balanced diet can help even with the most unique needs. Ideally, you want to create a caloric deficit by consuming fewer calories than you burn. A healthy, balanced, weight-loss diet should include varied food items such as lean proteins, fruits and vegetables, plenty of high-fiber starchy carbs, and healthy fats and dairy alternatives.
Relying on health supplements alone to burn excess fat is not a sustainable strategy for losing weight. To lose weight faster, you need to build muscle mass and take a holistic approach.
Thermogenic supplements can help increase the rate at which your body uses calories as energy. So, in addition to taking the health supplement, you also increase the intensity of your workouts. Consider combining cardio workouts with strength training exercises such as weight lifting to increase workout density. Try HIIT on some days and alternate with moderate HIIT sessions on other days.
Begin With A Low Dose
People react differently to thermogenic fat burner supplements. To assess your body’s tolerance, start with a low dosage and gradually build on it for best results. If you take more than the recommended dosage, your body may become dependent on the supplements, rendering them ineffective for weight loss over time.
Cycle Your Usage Of Fat Burner Supplements
Just like with many other supplements, you should use fat burner supplements for a specific duration and then take a break. This helps to balance your hormones and prevents potential side effects. It also motivates you in your weight loss journey as you aren’t restricted to a habit of daily supplementation.
Monitor Your Sleep
Getting enough sleep can help your weight loss goals. According to scientific evidence, even partial sleep deprivation can cause adverse effects on weight loss goals. On the other hand, getting adequate sleep every night improves your natural metabolism. Combining good rest with thermogenic fat burners will make you feel energized and motivated daily, which is vital for your fat-burning goals.
Monitor Your Body
Before settling on a particular fat burner supplement, it’s crucial to understand that people have different chemical and biological compositions. You should monitor your body’s reaction to these supplements before incorporating them into your fitness programs. If you notice that a fat burner causes severe side effects such as dizziness, nausea, or rapid heartbeat, discontinue immediately. If necessary, consult with a healthcare practitioner.
Seek Professional Advice
Are you considering incorporating thermogenic fat burner supplements into your weight loss program? Before trying any available option, it’s highly recommended that you consult with your healthcare provider for personalized advice. This is especially true if you have an underlying health condition or are using certain medications.
Also, if you’ve been struggling with yo-yo dieting and fluctuating weight, you might want to consider therapy. A professional therapist can help you reassess your goals and improve your relationship with your eating habits and body image. You can also learn new stress management tools if you often find yourself eating emotionally.
Society makes everyone think they need to have a perfectly lean body physique. Unfortunately, modern lifestyles, unrealistic expectations, and unhealthy eating habits make it hard to achieve aggressive weight loss goals — goals that might not even be healthy.
Remember, although fat burners might help your weight loss regimen, they’re not magic pills. Sustainable results can only be achieved through regular physical activity, healthy diets, dedication, and positive energy. If you’ve had a hard time changing your habits, you can also consider support groups and therapy to learn how to break out of a rut.
Finally, keep in mind that there’s a big difference between wanting to lose weight and wanting to get healthier. Thanks to the media, many people with a perfectly healthy body weight still feel the need to lose weight — even if they already live a healthy lifestyle. So before you buy any weight loss pills, think about if you really need them. It might instead be a moment to think about building a healthier relationship with food and your body image.
Frequently Asked Questions
Thermogenic burning is the process by which the body produces heat and burns more calories for energy production.
Thermogenic fat burners alone don’t exactly just burn fat. They might help boost your metabolism, but you should combine the supplements with a balanced diet and regular exercise to burn fat.
Thermogenic fat burners are generally safe for most healthy people. However, some fat burners can cause side effects such as headaches, abdominal pains, nausea, anxiety, heart palpitations, and constipation. If you experience severe side effects, immediately consult your physician.
Take your pills early in the morning, before breakfast, and before exercising. In addition, stay hydrated and always stick to a healthy diet plus regular exercise. Pay attention to side effects and speak to your doctor before starting any supplement.
People taking medication or with underlying conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease may react to herbal extracts and stimulants in thermogenic fat burners. If a fat burner causes adverse side effects, discontinue and speak to your doctor.
+ 32 Sources
EHproject has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We work mostly with peer-reviewed studies to ensure accurate information. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.
- Prather, J., Florez, C.M., Vargas, A., Soto, B., Harrison, A., Willoughby, D., Tinsley, G.M. and Taylor, L. (2023). The effects of a thermogenic supplement on metabolic and hemodynamic variables and subjective mood states. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, [online] 20(1). doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/15502783.2023.2185538.
- Clark, J. and Welch, S.L. (2021). Comparing effectiveness of fat burners and thermogenic supplements to diet and exercise for weight loss and cardiometabolic health: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition and Health, [online] 27(4), pp.445–459. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0260106020982362.
- Tian, H., Guo X, Wang, X., He, Z., Sun, R., Ge, S. and Zhang, Z. (2013). Chromium picolinate supplementation for overweight or obese adults. The Cochrane library, [online] 2013(11). doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd010063.pub2.
- Eynav Harpaz, Tamir, S., Weinstein, A. and Weinstein, Y. (2016). The effect of caffeine on energy balance. Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology, [online] 28(1), pp.1–10. doi:https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2016-0090.
- Özgür Kasımay Çakır, Nurfitnat Ellek, Nabila Salehin, Rabia Hamamcı, Hülya Keleş, Damla Gökçeoğlu Kayalı, Dilek Akakın, Meral Yüksel and Dilek Özbeyli (2017). Protective effect of low dose caffeine on psychological stress and cognitive function. Physiology & Behavior, [online] 168, pp.1–10. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.10.010.
- Grosso, G., Micek, A., Castellano, S., Pajak, A. and Galvano, F. (2015). Coffee, tea, caffeine and risk of depression: A systematic review and dose–response meta‐analysis of observational studies. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, [online] 60(1), pp.223–234. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201500620.
- Cappelletti, S., Piacentino, D., Sani, G. and Mariarosaria Aromatario (2015). Caffeine: Cognitive and Physical Performance Enhancer or Psychoactive Drug? Current Neuropharmacology, [online] 13(1), pp.71–88. doi:https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159×13666141210215655.
- El Mostafa Karym, Youssef El Kharrassi, Asmaa Badreddine, Andreoletti, P., Jòseph Vamecq, El, S., Latruffe, N., Gérard Lizard, Nasser, B. and Mustapha Cherkaoui‐Malki (2014). Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease. Molecules, [online] 19(9), pp.14879–14901. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190914879.
- Clark, M.J. and Slavin, J.L. (2013). The Effect of Fiber on Satiety and Food Intake: A Systematic Review. Journal of The American College of Nutrition, [online] 32(3), pp.200–211. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2013.791194.
- Suat Küçükgöncü, Zhou, E., Lucas, K.B. and Tek, C. (2017). Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) as a supplementation for weight loss: results from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, [online] 18(5), pp.594–601. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12528.
- Liu, J., Peng, Y., Yue, Y., Shen, P. and Park, Y. (2018). Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Reduces Fat Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, [online] 23(3), pp.214–219. doi:https://doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2018.23.3.214.
- Malanga, G., María Belén Aguiar, Martinez, H.D. and Puntarulo, S. (2012). New Insights on Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) Features as a Free Radical Scavenger. Drug Metabolism Letters, [online] 6(1), pp.54–59. doi:https://doi.org/10.2174/187231212800229282.
- Office (2023). Spilling the Beans: How Much Caffeine is Too Much? [online] U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/spilling-beans-how-much-caffeine-too-much#:~:text=For%20healthy%20adults%2C%20the%20FDA,associated%20with%20dangerous%2C%20negative%20effects
- Rojas-González, A., Claudia Yuritzi Figueroa-Hernández, Óscar González-Ríos, Mirna Leonor Suárez-Quiroz, Rosa María González-Amaro, Zorba Josué Hernández-Estrada and Rayas‐Duarte, P. (2022). Coffee Chlorogenic Acids Incorporation for Bioactivity Enhancement of Foods: A Review. Molecules, [online] 27(11), pp.3400–3400. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27113400.
- PubChem (2023). Choline. [online] @pubchem. Available at: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Choline
- Hanna, M., Jaqua, E., Van Long Nguyen and Clay, J. (2022). B Vitamins: Functions and Uses in Medicine. The Permanente Journal, [online] 26(2), pp.89–97. doi:https://doi.org/10.7812/tpp/21.204.
- Maia-Landim, A., Ramı́rezJ.M., Lancho, C., Poblador, M.S. and Lancho, J.L. (2018). Long-term effects of Garcinia cambogia/Glucomannan on weight loss in people with obesity, PLIN4, FTO and Trp64Arg polymorphisms. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, [online] 18(1). doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2099-7.
- Kim, J., Kang Pa Lee, Lee, D.-W. and Lim, K. (2017). Piperine enhances carbohydrate/fat metabolism in skeletal muscle during acute exercise in mice. Nutrition & Metabolism, [online] 14(1). doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12986-017-0194-2.
- Ludy, M., Moore, G.E. and Mattes, R.D. (2011). The Effects of Capsaicin and Capsiate on Energy Balance: Critical Review and Meta-analyses of Studies in Humans. Chemical Senses, [online] 37(2), pp.103–121. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjr100.
- Sugita, J., Takeshi Yoneshiro, Hatano, T., Aita, S., Ikemoto, T., Hideyo Uchiwa, Iwanaga, T., Toshimitsu Kameya, Kawai, Y. and Saito, M. (2013). Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men. British Journal of Nutrition, [online] 110(4), pp.733–738. doi:https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114512005715.
- Fang, Y., Ma, J., Lei, P., Wang, L., Qu, J., Zhao, J., Liu, F., Yan, X., Wu, W., Jin, L., Ji, H. and Sun, D. (2023). Konjac Glucomannan: An Emerging Specialty Medical Food to Aid in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Foods, [online] 12(2), pp.363–363. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020363.
- Jing, X., Liang, Y., Wang, R., Fu, H., Jiang, J. and Yang, M. (2022). β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate-enriched nutritional supplements for obese adults during weight loss: study protocol of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. BMJ Open, [online] 12(6), pp.e055420–e055420. doi:https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055420.
- Chen, J., Peng, S., Cheng, Y.-H., Lee, I-Te. and Yu, Y.-H. (2021). Effect of Forskolin on Body Weight, Glucose Metabolism and Adipocyte Size of Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice. Animals, [online] 11(3), pp.645–645. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030645.
- Nih.gov. (2014). Office of Dietary Supplements – Chromium. [online] Available at: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Chromium-HealthProfessional/
- CDC (2023). Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight. [online] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/physical_activity/index.html
- Tinsley, G.M., Urbina, S., Mullins, J., Outlaw, J., Hayward, S., Stone, M., Foster, C., Wilborn, C. and Taylor, L. (2017). Influence of A Thermogenic Dietary Supplement on Safety Markers, Body Composition, Energy Expenditure, Muscular Performance and Hormone Concentrations: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial. Journal of sports science & medicine, [online] 16(4), pp.459–467. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5721174/
- Food, in, and, F., Board and Institute of Medicine (2014). Caffeine Effects on the Cardiovascular System. [online] Nih.gov. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK202224/#:~:text=These%20effects%20manifest%20as%20increased,of%20300%20mg%20of%20caffeine.
- NCCIH. (2015). Yohimbe. [online] Available at: https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/yohimbe
- Thornton, S.N. (2016). Increased Hydration Can Be Associated with Weight Loss. Frontiers in Nutrition, [online] 3. doi:https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2016.00018.
- DePorter, D.P., Coborn, J. and Teske, J.A. (2017). Partial Sleep Deprivation Reduces the Efficacy of Orexin-A to Stimulate Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure. Obesity, [online] 25(10), pp.1716–1722. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21944.
- Nih.gov. (2013). Office of Dietary Supplements – Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss. [online] Available at: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/WeightLoss-HealthProfessional/
- Cox, C. (2017). Role of Physical Activity for Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance. Diabetes Spectrum, [online] 30(3), pp.157–160. doi:https://doi.org/10.2337/ds17-0013.