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INDIA: IMPROVING CHILD HEALTH AND NUTRITION IN URBAN SLUMSIn the largest cities in India, 40-60% of the population lives in slums or squatter settlements. Working with USAID/India, EHP has developed an action plan for a five-year urban health program. The goal of the India Urban Health Program is to bring about sustained improvement in child health in urban slums in selected cities, focusing on diarrheal disease reduction and improving neonatal survival.Two cities, Indore and Jamshedpur, have been identified to implement the India Urban Health program. Approaches include a situation analysis and data compilation, development of partnerships and coalitions, capacity building of NGOs, CBOs and public and private health care providers, implementation of services utilizing partnership models, a knowledge inventory of available urban slum child health data for information sharing and multi-level advocacy activities.To date, EHP has hired a local urban health program director, established an office in Delhi, carried out consultative stakeholder workshops in Indore to identify partners, conducted health vulnerability assessments for priority intervention zones and created a local consultant base for program implementation.For information on the activity, please contact Sarah Fry at [email protected] or Dr. Siddharth at [email protected].  
HYGIENE PROMOTION IN THE LATIN AMERICA CARIBBEAN REGIONIn collaboration with PAHO, Ministries of Health, and PVO and NGO partners, USAID has launched a behavior change for hygiene improvement activity in two countries in the Latin America Caribbean region.Under this activity, the USAID-funded EHP provides assistance in training and materials development to NGO partners working in high diarrheal disease incidence districts in Nicaragua and Peru. The activity highlights the expanding focus of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) from a facility-based approach to community-based IMCI (C-IMCI), emphasizing community and household practices and preventative behaviors at the household and community level.The strategy is modeled after a successful approach used by EHP in the Dominican Republic to develop and field test a C-IMCI module integrating hygiene behavior change into existing C-IMCI modules in diarrheal disease prevention.For more information on this activity, please contact Lisa Nichols at [email protected]
MALARIA CONTROL IN ERITREAAlmost 67% of the resident population of Eritrea lives in malaria endemic areas. Malaria accounts for over 30% of the total outpatient morbidity in Eritrea, and an estimated 28% of all hospital admissions are malaria related.The government of Eritrea has a strong commitment to malaria control, and through USAID/Eritrea, EHP is providing technical support to the Eritrea National Malaria Control Program (NMCP). To better guide decisions on vector control programs, the NMCP initiated a series of studies.Two studies, one examining the factors responsible for larval production, such as spatial patterns of anopheline species and larval ecology, and the other evaluating the efficacy of two alternative bacterial larvicides have been completed. The reports are now available from EHP (see “New EHP Publications” below).For information about malaria control in Eritrea, please contact Gene Brantly at [email protected]
THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: INTEGRATING HYGIENE IMPROVEMENT INTO PRIMARY HEALTH CAREIn the Democratic Republic of Congo, USAID is supporting a range of integrated activities within SANRU III, which is a five-year, $25 million, rural primary health-care project that operates in 63 health zones.EHP has conducted training of zonal water and sanitation coordinators, and a two-year action plan to integrate hygiene improvement into the water and sanitation component of SANRU III also has been completed. Other activities include formative research to identify high-risk hygiene behaviors and develop a behavior change communication strategy and the training of health center nurses to provide hygiene improvement messages that promote child health. Improving hygiene behavior at the household level will be a core component of the project’s community-based integrated management of childhood illness (C-IMCI) framework.For more information on these activities, please contact Fred Rosensweig at [email protected].  
INTEGRATING HEALTH, POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT IN MADAGASCARSince 2000, EHP has been supporting a four-year program in Madagascar that links and integrates activities related to health, population and environment (H-P-E).Voahary Salama or Integrated Programs Initiative (VS/IPI), a consortium of 20 partners in Madagascar that EHP helped to coordinate, implements the program. The partnership includes USAID/Madagascar, seven NGOs, a Malagasy foundation funded by the Summit Foundation and 12 other organizations, including several USAID-funded projects, which provide funding, technical assistance and implementation support.VS/IPI aims to strengthen the capacity of NGO partner organizations in developing and testing model approaches for integrating H-P-E programs, evaluating effectiveness and synergies created by different integration models, disseminating lessons learned, and replicating best practices in integrated approaches locally, nationally and internationally.To date, a survey has been conducted to provide information for designing integrated approaches and to serve as a baseline for evaluating program effectiveness over time. Moreover, VS/IPI partners, including EHP, have developed and implemented key social marketing and capacity-building approaches and materials for integrating activities at the community and program levels.A mid-term report highlighting the above and other key achievements in the first two years of the activity, 1999-2001, is now available from EHP (see “New EHP Publications” below).For information on this activity, please contact Eckhard Kleinau at [email protected].  
OUTCOMES FROM THE WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTThe World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) was held August 26-September 4 in Johannesburg, South Africa. The WSSD is a ten-year revisiting of the Agenda 21 Agreement reached during the 1992 UN Rio Earth Summit. The WSSD is seeking to reinvigorate, at the highest political level, the global commitment to sustainable development and its implementation at the local, regional, national and international levels. Participants were governments, multilateral financial institutions, United Nations agencies, citizen groups, business and industry, environmental organizations and others.At the request of the White House, USAID conducted the first-ever comprehensive survey of sustainable development activities by U.S. agencies and departments. Findings revealed that over 20 Agencies were actively involved in a full range of development assistance efforts. More than 400 on-the-ground initiatives were identified and entered into a fully searchable database and a comprehensive compendium. These findings are summarized in the USAID report: “Working for a Sustainable World: U.S. Government Initiatives to Promote Sustainable Development.”At WSSD, USAID emphasized partnerships between governments, NGOs and private sector entities as a key role in developing a continuing focus on sustainable development. These partnerships will be focused on key initiatives to:reduce the number of people living without safe drinking waterenhance access to clean energyreduce hunger and increase agricultural productivityensure universal access to basic educationstem AIDS and reduce tuberculosis and malariamanage and conserve forests and oceans.Information on the conference outcomes can be accessed at  
NEW EHP PUBLICATIONS!ACTIVITY REPORT 111. MALARIA VECTOR STUDIES IN ERITREAIn Eritrea, larval control is implemented as part of an integrated approach to malaria control. Although malaria remains a major cause of mortality in Eritrea, little is known about the Anopheles mosquito species responsible for malaria transmission. Since each mosquito species has a limited geographical range, understanding ecological diversity and biotic interactions is critical in determining how vector populations are structured.For larval control to be an integral part of a vector management program, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for larval production is crucial. On this basis, studies were initiated on the spatial patterns of anopheline species and larval ecology in Eritrea with the overall goal of providing insights into the bionomics of malaria parasite vectors.A 1.33 MB PDF version of the report is now available at more information or a hard copy of the report, contact [email protected]ACTIVITY REPORT 112. ERITREA FIELD STUDIES ON EFFICACY OF BACTERIAL LARVICIDES FOR USE IN MALARIA CONTROLThere is renewed interest in examining larval control as a potentially critical component of the integrated vector management program in Eritrea. The semi-arid climatic conditions, the seasonal incidence of malaria and the isolation of towns and villages in the country make larval control an ideal option for reducing the burden of malaria in Eritrea.If chemical larvicides were used intensively, resistance to these compounds might develop. Chemical larvicides also may create environmental problems. To meet the challenges of vector resistance to chemical larvicides, in addition to environmental safety, two alternative bacterial larvicides for use in malaria control were evaluated.A 321 KB PDF version of the report is available at more information or a hard copy of the report, contact [email protected]ACTIVITY REPORT 115. INTEGRATION OF HEALTH, POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS IN MADAGASCARSince 2000, EHP has been supporting a four-year program in Madagascar that links and integrates activities related to health, population and environment.This report summarizes progress and highlights key achievements from 1999-2001 in planning and implementing the program.A 2.12 MB PDF version of the report is available at more information or a hard copy of the report, contact [email protected]

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