East and Southern Africa
Eritrea: Improving Malaria Surveillance Capacity
Technical support activities for strengthening data collection, analysis, mapping, operational research and vector control, provided in collaboration with the World Bank, are contributing to the government’s integrated approach to malaria prevention and control.
Eritrea: Strengthening the Environmental Health Unit
EHP assisted the USAID mission in Eritrea to respond to the Ministry of Health’s request for technical input in developing a clearer understanding of the Ministry’s needs for technical assistance that will strengthen its Environmental Health Unit and environmental health programming.
Madagascar: Linking Natural Resource Management with Health and Family Planning
EHP is implementing a four-year program in Madagascar linking and integrating activities among projects in Population, Health and Environment (Natural Resource Management). The central hypothesis of this activity is that by integrating natural resource management with population and health, both will be more effective and sustainable. To date, EHP has helped to establish Voahary Salama or Integrated Programs Initiative (VS/IPI), a consortium of 20 partners in Madagascar which implements the program, and provides support by way of management and coordination, operations research, and monitoring and evaluation assistance.
Malawi: Improving Surveillance of Infectious Diseases
Several activities were carried out to develop data management, analysis, and mapping capabilities in the Community Health Services Unit of the Ministry of Health, which has responsibility for the national malaria control program.
Mozambique: Using Geographic Information Systems to Improve Surveillance of Infectious Diseases
A project aimed at developing capabilities in data management, analysis, and mapping within the Department of Health Services in the Ministry of Health has focused so far on training personnel in basic surveillance techniques, gathering and organizing data, defining data collection protocols and database structures, and investigating patterns of malaria occurrence in the capital city, Maputo.
West and Central Africa
Benin: Community-Based Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene to Prevent Diarrheal Disease
Municipal teams in four towns in Borgou Department are helping communities to identify and analyze environmental problems related to diarrheal disease and to address them through small-scale community projects, such as latrines and water source protection.
Morocco: Assessment of Childhood Environmental Health Disease Risk Factors
Through a data-gathering process (including community surveys) risk factors for diarrheal disease were identified in twelve low-income neighborhoods in the towns of Drarga and Ouled Teima; these risk factors are intended for use in planning interventions.
Activity Report 79. Environmental and Behavioral Risk Factors for Diarrheal Diseases in Childhood; A Survey in Two Towns in Morocco. Kelly, Patrick, Khanfir, Habib, David, Patricia H., Arata, Michelle, and Kleinau, Eckhard F. September 1999. Kelly, Patrick, Khanfir, Habib, David, Patricia H., Arata, Michelle, and Kleinau, Eckhard F. September 1999.
Activity Report 79. Facteurs de risque environnementaux et comportementaux pour les maladies diarrhéiques infantiles: Une enquête dans deux villes au Maroc. Kelly, Patrick, Khanfir, Habib, David, Patricia H., and Arata, Michelle, Kleinau Eckhard F. September 1999.
Nepal: Strengthening the Vector-Borne Disease Research and Training Center
A resident advisor is coordinating a range of activities to increase the surveillance capacity of the Vector-Borne Disease Research and Training Center in Hetauda and to enable it to play a leading role in conducting surveillance and planning interventions for malaria, kala azar, and Japanese encephalitis – not just in Nepal but also in the South Asia region.
Dominican Republic: Decentralization of Rural Water and Sanitation
As part of an effort to create a capacity within INAPA (the national water utility) to transfer responsibility for operations and maintenance of rural water and sanitation to local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector, consultants are assisting in the development of (1) technical guidelines and procedures for selecting water and sanitation technologies that are appropriate for users and that can be maintained using local resources and (2) internal INAPA policies and procedures for working in rural areas..
Guatemala: Interim Evaluation of a Handwashing Initiative
EHP reviewed data collected to assess the progress of and suggest next steps for a four year old collaboration between private soap companies in Central America and USAID (through EHP and the BASICS project) to promote handwashing for diarrheal disease prevention in soap company advertisements.
Honduras: Review of the Infectious Disease Components of a Health Sector Project
A team of consultants reviewed the progress made by the Honduras Ministry of Health in accomplishing the goals of the USAID-funded health sector project for malaria, dengue, and tuberculosis control and assessed a training program for environmental health technicians.
Activity Report 102. USAID/Honduras Health Sector II: A Review of Malaria, Dengue, and Tuberculosis Programs, and Training of Environmental Health Technicians (October 25 – November 5, 1999). Kalson, Dennis, and Lloyd, Linda S. April 2000.
Activity Report 102. Sector Salud II de la USAID/Honduras: Una Revisión de los Programas de Malaria, Dengue y Tuberculosis, y Capacatación de Técnicos de Salud Ambiental (25 de octubre-5 de novienbre de 1999). Kalson, Dennis, and Lloyd, Linda S. April 2000.
Nicaragua: Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Reconstruction
Grants have been awarded to six local PVOs to work with communities to provide hygiene education and reconstruct or build water and sanitation systems in areas hit by Hurricane Georges, with the focus on decreasing diarrheal disease.
Peru: Analysis of Lead Contamination, Pediatric Lead Poisoning and Interventions to Reduce Lead Exposure in Lima and Callao
A full-time environmental health professional, supported by technical consultants, is coordinating a number of activities for the Environmental Health General Directorate in Peru (DIGESA) to clarify sources of lead contamination in Lima and Callao, to determine the public health impact of the problem through blood lead surveys, to develop a risk management program, and to increase DIGESA’s ability to address problems related to lead and other industrial or urban pollutants.
Activity Report 104. Estudio para Determinar las Fuentes de Exposición a Plomo en la Provincia Constitucional del Callao, Perú. (Study to Determine the Sources of Lead Exposure in the Constitutional Province of Callao, Peru). Narciso Chávez, Juan; Gastañga Ruiz, Carmen; Espinoza Lain, Rocio ; Sánchez Zavaleta, Carlos; Moscoso Reátegui, Shirley; Quequejana Condori, José Luis; and Hernández Avila, Mauricio. June 2000. Note: file is 4,205 KB.
Peru: Technical Assistance and Training in Urban Environmental Health
Working together, EHP and the Environmental Health Unit within the Peruvian Ministry of Health will provide technical assistance, training, and small grants to NGOs that will be responsible for implementing small-scale urban environmental health projects at six sites.
Paraguay: Assessment of Program Opportunities for Decentralization of Water and Sanitation Services
EHP conducted as assessment of decentralization of water and wastewater services as part of an overall effort to support decentralization of water and sanitation in Central America and the Dominican Republic.
El Salvador: Support for Legal and Regulatory Reform of the Water Sector
As part of a program to assist the government of El Salvador to prepare new laws on water resources management and regulation of the water and sanitation sector, EHP will provide expert consultants on key issues relating to both laws.
El Salvador: Water Law and Institutional Policy
A consultant produced an action plan to guide the USAID mission in efforts to support passage and implementation of a effective national water law that will give authority to local organizations, municipalities, NGOs, local water committees, and others to maintain their water systems.
El Salvador: Assessment of CARE Water and Sanitation for Health Program
CARE’s past and current activities in water and sanitation for diarrheal disease prevention were reviewed to evaluate progress to date and lessons learned and to recommend improvements for the second half of a five-year program, which began in 1998.
Europe/Newly Independent States
Ukraine: Assessment of Environmental Health Activities
A multidisciplinary team conducted an assessment of occupational and environmental health-related problems and activities in Ukraine to provide information for use by the USAID mission in planning future activities.
Activity Report 101. An Assessment of Environmental and Occupational Health Activities Conducted for the USAID Mission to Ukraine. Billig, Patricia, Daane, Janelle, and Dobrovolsky, Leonard. January 2000.
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